Step Three: Convert to PDF
Once you have successfully defended or completed your final thesis or dissertation, a PDF version is required for deposit in UNB's digital repository, UNB Scholar. It is recommended that the mandatory single-paper copy of your thesis or dissertation be printed from your PDF file. This will help ensure that the PDF and printed copies are identical.
Creating a PDF
In this section:
- File naming conventions
- Converting a Word 2007-2010 document to PDF
- Converting a Word 2000-2003 document to PDF
- Converting a LaTeX document to PDF
- No access to a UNB Lab?
- Need Help?
All public computer labs on UNB Fredericton and Saint John campuses have Microsoft Word and Adobe Acrobat Professional. When this combination of software is present, conversion from Word to PDF can be done directly through the Word Program. If you are using Word on a machine without Adobe Acrobat Professional, you may bring a copy of your thesis or dissertation to a UNB computer lab to perform the conversion. Using your Novell home account drive H:, or the Thesis Development System, may assist you in transferring your document.
When creating your PDF file, please use the following naming convention (using lower case text):
- Click the Office Button, Print, and then Print again.
- Next, select Adobe PDF as the Printer Name and click OK.
- You will be prompted to give a file name (see above naming convention). Once you have done so, click Save. Your Word file will now convert to PDF and should load on your screen when finished. Revise the document to see if everything looks correct.
Note: You may have a different type of PDF writer, so the printer name might be different than "Adobe PDF."
When Adobe Acrobat is integrated into the Word 2000-2003, it will automatically include PDF Maker macros. These macros will automatically display as three new buttons on a toolbar of their own the next time you start Word. This toolbar works in the same manner as the rest of your toolbars. It can be turned on and off by choosing "View Toolbars" from the menu bar. The PDF toolbar will look like the following:
Open your document within Word and click the button labeled Convert to Adobe PDF (above).
- You are then prompted to provide a name for the file (see below). Click Save once you have given a name.
- Once your Word file has been converted, the PDF should load on your screen. Revise the document to see if everything looks correct.
LaTeX is a set of macro extensions to the TeX document composition system designed by Donald Knuth. TeX, and thus LaTeX, are mark up languages. The format of the input to the TeX program is plain ASCII text with mark up directives embedded within or surrounding the text to be marked up.
Any program capable of displaying plain ASCII text and making changes to ASCII text files may be used as LaTeX and TeX sources.
To create a PDF file from a LaTeX document, use the following steps:
- Render your LaTeX document to a dvi file.
- Preview the document for accuracy using the xdvi tool.
- Use the dvips program to convert the dvi file to a postscript (.ps) file
- Use the ps2psdf program to convert the postscript file to a pdf file. The program ps2pdf is freely available for Unix/Linux, and will usually be pre-installed on RedHat versions of Linux.
If you don't have access Adobe Acrobat on your computer, you will need to have another PDF writer installed; CutePDF Writer for Windows is a free alternative. Once you have the PDF writer installed, use the print option of your word processor, choose the CutePDF writer as the printer name, and then click Print. You will be either prompted before or after the PDF is created to supply a file name.
You can also use one of the following methods:
- For Mac users, please read "How to create PDF Documents on OS X"
- Create Adobe PDF Online tool from Adobe. You can make 5 PDF files for free
UNB does not require the use of PDF/A format for your thesis or dissertation. The information below is simply available to you if you decide to take this route.
What is PDF/A?
PDF/A is a specific PDF format that focuses on the long-term preservation and archival of electronic documents; it ensures that documents (in this case, theses and dissertations) can be reproduced exactly the same way many years down the road. In the words of wikipedia, ' A key element to this reproducibility is the requirement for PDF/A documents to be 100% self-contained. All of the information necessary for displaying the document in the same manner every time is embedded in the file. A PDF/A document is not permitted to be reliant on information from external sources.'
The basic requirements for PDF/A are the following:
- No audio or video content is allowed
- All the fonts should be embedded including the Base 14 fonts
- No hyper-links used within content or as references
- The document should not be encrypted
For more information, visit the PDF/A Wikipage.
If you are having trouble creating a PDF or you are unable to do so for any particular reason, you can send your Word file to Rob Glencross for conversion. It must be in Microsoft Word format, however.
Help is also available on the Fredericton campus at the Harriet Irving Library's Learning Commons. On the Saint John campus, faculty and staff can obtain help in Hazen Hall (Room 336), while students can obtain help at the Hans W. Klohn Commons.